Dill, J., & Anderson, C.A. (1995). 

Effects of justified and unjustified frustration on aggression. 

Aggressive Behavior, 21, 359-369.


The present study tested Berkowitz's (1989: Psychological Bulletin, 106:59-73) reformulation of the frustration-aggression hypothesis which states that any negative or aversive stimulus such as frustration, even if justified, will result in some measurable tendency to aggress. Participants' attainment of an expected gratification was either blocked in an unjustified manner, blocked in a justified manner, or not blocked at all. Degree of hostile aggression directed at the frustrating individual was measured. As predicted, justified frustration produced less hostile aggression than unjustified frustration, but even justified frustration produced more hostile aggression than no frustration that all. Results support Berkowitz's frustration-aggression reformulation.

 © 1995 by Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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